This has been sitting on my office whiteboard for a few days, where it doesn't do anybody (well, except for me and my officemates) any good. It's a canonical-forms presentation of natural deduction for polarized logic that corresponds to the focused sequent calculus I presented and analyzed in the (recently-updated) Structural focalization draft (PDF warning). The polarized sequent calculus in that draft isn't new: it's a tweaked version of Liang and Miller's authoritative LJF.^{1} This canonical-forms presentation, however, is not something I've seen, so I'd be interested to know if it's been seen elsewhere: I know this is an area where a lot of other people have been working.

## A bidirectional type system for polarized logic

There is, in my mind at least, no argument about what the *propositions* of polarized intuitionstic logic are; the following is straight of the aforementioned draft, but the basic idea dates back to Girard's 1991 post to the LINEAR mailing list, creatively titled "On the sex of angles".

\( {\bf Positive~propositions:} ~~ A^+, B^+, C^+ ~~ ::= ~~ p^+ \mid {\downarrow}A^- \mid \bot \mid A^+ \vee B^+ \mid \top^+ \mid A^+ \wedge^+ B^+ \)

\( {\bf Negative~propositions:} ~~ A^-, B^-, C^- ~~ ::= ~~ p^- \mid {\uparrow}A^+ \mid A^+ \supset B^- \mid \top^- \mid A^- \wedge^- B^- \)

What makes a proposition positive or negative? Good question! I won't address it here. (I address it a bit in the draft.)

Following tradition and best practices, we will structure the canonical forms presentation as a bidirectional type system. There are three judgments to worry about, as compared to the two judgments in other canonical forms presentations of logic. These judgments include contexts \(\Gamma\), which are sets of *negative* variables \(x\) associated with negative propositions (\(x{:}A^-\)) and *positive* variables \(z\) associated with *atomic* positive propositions (\(z{:}p^+\)).

\( \Gamma \vdash R \Rightarrow A^- \) - this is the familiar synthesis judgment from canonical forms presentations; it expresses that the

*atomic term*\(R\)*synthesizes*\(A^-\). The word "synthesis" is used because it is possible to think of the type \(A^-\) as an output to the judgment, whereas \(\Gamma\) and \(R\) are inputs. In the other two judgments, everything will be treated as an input.\( R ::= x \mid R~V \mid \pi_1 R \mid \pi_2 R \)

\( \Gamma \vdash V \Leftarrow A^+ \) - this is the new judgment corresponding to

*right focus*in the focused sequent calculus; we say that the*value*\(V\)*checks against*\(A^+\).\( V ::= z \mid N \mid {\sf inl}~V \mid {\sf inr}~V \mid \langle\rangle^+ \)

\( \Gamma \vdash N \Leftarrow [\Omega] A^-\) - this is a modification of the familiar checking judgment from canonical forms presentations, which usually lack the bit about \([\Omega]\), which is an ordered list of positive propositions. The reason we need \([\Omega]\) is precisely because we're dealing with positive propositions, which most canonical forms presentations lack or deal with in an unsatisfactory (in my humble opinion) manner. (I'll return to this point in the discussion at the end.)We say that thus judgment expresses that the

*normal term*\(N\)*decomposes*\(\Omega\)*and verifies*\(A^-\).\( N ::= R \mid z.N \mid V \mid {\sf let}~R~{\sf in}~N \mid x.N \mid \lambda N \mid \langle\rangle^- \mid \langle N_1, N_2 \rangle^- \mid {\sf abort} \mid [ N_1, N_2 ]\)

Except for the first four rules, everything is patterned in the usual style of presentation for a natural deduction system: for each connective, we give first the introduction rules and then the elimination rules.

### Hypothesis and atomic propositions

\[ \infer {\Gamma \vdash R \Leftarrow []p^-} {\Gamma \vdash R \Rightarrow p'^- & p^- = p'^-} \qquad \infer {\Gamma \vdash x \Rightarrow A^-} {x{:}A^- \in \Gamma} \qquad \infer {\Gamma \vdash z \Leftarrow p^+} {z{:}p^+ \in \Gamma} \qquad \infer {\Gamma \vdash z.N \Leftarrow [p^+, \Omega] C^-} {\Gamma, z{:}p&+ \vdash N \Leftarrow [\Omega] C^-} \]### Shifts

\[ \infer {{\uparrow}A^+~{\it stable}} {} \qquad \infer {p^-~{\it stable}} {} \] \[ \infer {\Gamma \vdash V \Leftarrow []{\uparrow}A^+} {\Gamma \vdash V \Leftarrow A^+} \qquad \infer {\Gamma \vdash {\sf let}~R~{\sf in}~N \Leftarrow []C^-} {\Gamma \vdash R \Rightarrow {\uparrow}A^+ & \Gamma \vdash N \Leftarrow [A^+]C^- & C^-~{\it stable}} \] \[ \infer {\Gamma \vdash N \Leftarrow {\downarrow}A^-} {\Gamma \vdash N \Leftarrow []A^-} \qquad \infer {\Gamma \vdash x.N \Leftarrow [{\downarrow}A^-, \Omega]C^-} {\Gamma, x{:}A^- \vdash N \Leftarrow [\Omega]C^-} \]### Connectives

\[ \infer {\Gamma \vdash \lambda N \Leftarrow []A^+ \supset B^-} {\Gamma \vdash N \Leftarrow [A^+]B^-} \qquad \infer {\Gamma \vdash R~V \Rightarrow B^-} {\Gamma \vdash R \Rightarrow A^+ \supset B^- & \Gamma \vdash V \Leftarrow A^+} \] \[ \infer {\Gamma \vdash \langle\rangle^- \Leftarrow \top^-} {} \qquad {\it (no~elim~rule~for~\top^-)} \] \[ \infer {\Gamma \vdash \langle N_1, N_2 \rangle^- \Leftarrow A^- \wedge^- B^-} {\Gamma \vdash N_1 \Leftarrow A^- & \Gamma \vdash N_2 \Leftarrow B^-} \qquad \infer {\Gamma \vdash \pi_1 R \Rightarrow A^-} {\Gamma \vdash R \Rightarrow A^- \wedge^- B^-} \qquad \infer {\Gamma \vdash \pi_2 R \Rightarrow B^-} {\Gamma \vdash R \Rightarrow A^- \wedge^- B^-} \] \[ {\it (no~intro~rule~for~\bot)} \qquad \infer {\Gamma \vdash {\sf abort} \Leftarrow [\bot, \Omega]C^-} {} \] \[ \infer {\Gamma \vdash {\sf inl}~V \Leftarrow A^+ \vee B^+} {\Gamma \vdash V \Leftarrow A^+} \qquad \infer {\Gamma \vdash {\sf inr}~V \Leftarrow A^+ \vee B^+} {\Gamma \vdash V \Leftarrow B^+} \qquad \infer {\Gamma \vdash [N_1, N_2] \Leftarrow [A^+ \vee B^+, \Omega] C^-} {\Gamma \vdash N_1 \Leftarrow [A^+, \Omega] C^- & \Gamma \vdash N_2 \Leftarrow [B^+, \Omega] C^-} \] \[ \infer {\Gamma \vdash \langle\rangle^+ \Leftarrow \top^+} {} \qquad \infer {\Gamma \vdash \langle\rangle.N \Leftarrow [\top^+, \Omega] C^-} {\Gamma \vdash N \Leftarrow [\Omega] C^-} \] \[ \infer {\Gamma \vdash \langle V_1^+, V_2^+ \rangle \Leftarrow A^+ \wedge^+ B^+} {\Gamma \vdash V_1^+ \Leftarrow A^+ & \Gamma \vdash V_2^+ \Leftarrow B^+} \qquad \infer {\Gamma \vdash N \Leftarrow [A^+ \wedge^+ B^+, \Omega] C^-} {\Gamma \vdash N \Leftarrow [A^+, B^+, \Omega] C^-} \]## Discussion

There are two possible questions I want to address about this system in the previous section.

### What's with those positive "elimination" rules?

It would be possible to complain that the system above is not very "natural deduction-ey" after all - for all the positive connectives, I basically give sequent calculus *left rules* instead of natural deduction *elimination rules*. What happened to the usual "large elimination"-style elimination rules, for instance the usual disjunction-elimination rule whose proof term is a case analysis?
\[
\infer
{\Gamma \vdash ({\sf case}~R~{\sf of}~{\sf inl}~x \rightarrow N_1 \mid {\sf inr}~y \rightarrow N_2) \Leftarrow C}
{\Gamma \vdash R \Rightarrow A \wedge B
&
\Gamma, x{:}A \vdash N_1 \Leftarrow C
&
\Gamma, y{:}B \vdash N_2 \Leftarrow C}
\]

I think that the answer can be given by looking at the shifts. Essentially, every large elimination as we know and love it follows from the structure of the \({\uparrow}\) elimination rule, which all on its own looks an awful lot like a cut. You should verify for yourself that, if you let \({\sf case}~R~{\sf of}~{\sf inl}~x \Rightarrow N_1 \mid {\sf inr}~y \Rightarrow N_2\) be defined as syntactic sugar for \({\sf let}~R~{\sf in}~[ x.N_1, y.N_2]\), then the following rule is derivable whenever \(C^-~{\it stable}\) holds.^{2}
\[
\infer
{\Gamma \vdash {\sf case}~R~{\sf of}~{\sf inl}~x \Rightarrow N_1 \mid {\sf inr}~y \Rightarrow N_2 \Leftarrow C^-}
{\Gamma \vdash R \Rightarrow {\uparrow}({\downarrow}A^- \vee {\downarrow}B^-)
&
\Gamma, x{:}A^- \vdash N_1 \Leftarrow C^-
&
\Gamma, y{:}B^- \vdash N_2 \Leftarrow C^-}
\]

Pay attention to those two appearances of the downshift \({\downarrow}\) - they tell you something important about the structure of the usual elimination rules, which is that they "lose focus" while decomposing the disjunction. The usual way of thinking of normal natural deduction doesn't require, when you decompose \(A \vee B\) in an elimination, that you continue decomposing \(A\) and \(B\), which is represented here by the fact that, to match the structure of the usual elimination rule, you have to put downshifts \in explicitly. Jacob Howe, in his thesis and in his excellent paper "Proof search in lax logic," demonstrates this by making a focused sequent calculus that corresponds to the usual (constantly-interrupted) notion of decomposing positive propositions that you get if you follow your intuitions from natural deduction too closely.

By gathering all the large eliminations together in the \({\uparrow}\) elimination rule, we allow for the usual large eliminations to be defined, but also allow for the possibility that we might want to "chain" large eliminations in a well-defined way. (As an exercise, consider the structure of the elimination rule for \({\uparrow}(({\downarrow}A^- \wedge^+ {\downarrow}B^-) \vee (p^+ \wedge^+ \top^+))\).) This is why I claim that this is a natural deduction system that corresponds to the focused sequent calculus, instead of Howe's system where it's the other way around.^{3}

### Where are all the patterns?

Patterns have been associated with focused and/or canonical forms presentations of logic ever since... well, since Neel wrote the paper "Focusing on pattern matching"... or maybe since Noam wrote "Focusing and higher-order abstract syntax"... well, really at least since the CLF tech report. A lot of these, notably Noam's systems, have presented the rules of logic using *pattern judgments*, devices which abstractly represent the way in which values of a particular (positive) type are constructed or the way atomic terms of a particular (negative) type are eliminated.

There's this picture that isn't fully formed in my head, but that I've been thinking about for some time. On the left side of this picture, I think, you have the (pattern-free) presentation of natural deduction that I have given here at the top, and the (pattern-free) focused sequent calculus from "Structural focalization" at the bottom. Then, in the middle, you have (at the top) a natural deduction system that uses Noam's pattern judgments to *introduce* negative propositions and *eliminate* positive propositions - this is precisely (or at least very nearly) Taus Brock-Nannestad and Carsten Schürmann's system from "Focused Natural Deduction." Below it, there is a sequent calculus system that uses Noam's pattern judgments to *eliminate* negative propositions and *introduce* positive propositions. Kevin Watkins and Frank Pfenning came up with this idea and named it the "skeleton calculus" (a reference to the "spine calculus" of Cervesato and Pfenning), but it hasn't been written up that I know of. The skeleton calculus was what I was thinking about this morning when I decided to write this post. Then, on the far right, you have Noam's system, which is entirely pattern-based: patterns are used to both introduce and eliminate all connectives, so that the logic itself basically doesn't "know" about any connectives at all. This hazy picture is why, in the structural focalization draft, I mentioned that I thought Noam's system was a "natural synthesis of natural deduction and sequent calculus presentations".

But why should the picture look like the one I sketched above? Why not have a natural deduction system that uses patterns to introduce positives and eliminate negatives, or a sequent calculus that uses patterns to eliminate positives and introduce negatives? There's also the elephant in the room: CLF, which has both natural deduction and sequent calculus presentations, but which, in both instances, uses patterns only in the elimination of positive connectives. What are all these options doing here, and what are we to make of them? I don't know (yet).

^{1}I should add that, while the adaptation of LJF isn't particularly interesting, the proof term assignment I give is different than any others I've seen and I'm pretty happy with it; that's another case where I'd be interested to know if others have done anything similar.

^{2}This additional requirement of stability just reflects that it's always possible to restrict large eliminations in a canonical forms presentation of natural deduction to situations where the; this isn't always required in canonical forms presentations of natural deduction, but is an important part of making sure the sequent calculus presented in "Structural focalization" corresponds correctly to the natural deduction presentation.

^{3}I specifically suspect that this is a natural deduction system

*isomorphic*to the focused sequent calculus from Structural focalization, but I don't want to make that claim until I've proved it.